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PhD, Penn State University
Sellers often have the power to censor the reviews of their products. We explore the effect of these censorship policies in markets where some consumers are unaware of possible censorship. We find that if the share of such "naive" consumers is not too large, then rational consumers treat any bad review that is revealed in equilibrium as good news about product quality. This makes bad reviews worth revealing and allows the seller to use them to signal his product's quality to rational consumers.
We propose a new notion of farsighted pairwise stability for dynamic network formation
which includes two notable features: consideration of intermediate payoffs and cautiousness.
This differs from existing concepts which typically consider either only immediate or final
payoffs, and which often require that players are optimistic in any environment without full
communication and commitment. For arbitrary (and possibly heterogeneous) preferences over
the process of network formation, a non-empty cautious path stable (CPS) set of networks
always exists. Furthermore, some general relationships exist between CPS and other farsighted
This paper presents a novel combinatorial approach for voting rule analysis. Applying reversal symmetry, we introduce a new class of preference profiles and a new representation (bracelet representation) of preference profiles. By applying an impartial, anonymous, and neutral culture model for the case of three alternatives, we obtain precise theoretical values for the number of election scores for the plurality rule, the Kemeny rule, the Borda rule, and the scoring rules in the extreme case.
We study the importance of input-output (IO) linkages and sectoral productivity (TFP) in determining cross-country income differences. We find that while highly connected sectors are more productive than the typical sector in poor countries, the opposite is true in rich ones. To assess the quantitative role of linkages and sectoral TFP differences in cross-country income differences, we decompose cross-country income variation using a multi-sector general equilibrium model. We find that (i) IO linkages substantially amplify fundamental sectoral TFP variation but (ii) this amplification is significantly weaker than the one suggested by a simple IO model with an aggregate intermediate good.
We consider a model of monopolistic competition with several heterogeneous sectors and endogenous labor supply. For low (high) values of the labor supply elasticity, we show that there is always a unique equilibrium. For medium values of the labor supply elasticity, there are either zero or two equilibria.
We studied the effect of social status on social learning and other personal characteristics in an experimental game where individuals in a dyad made repeated attempts to guess the underlying state of the world. Several sets of survey questions were deployed to control for socioeconomic status, the subjective perception of social status, and leadership traits, as well as quality and quantity of social interactions, and cognitive reflection. Risk aversion was measured using an incentivized task. We also induced social status in each pair of subjects using a dictator game. We found that people with high subjective social status relied less on observed choices of other subjects and put more weight on private information. Subjects who were less risk-averse and showed more leadership traits, were also less likely to learn from the actions of others. Some effects were gender-specific. Our finding that social learning is stronger in low-status individuals can imply higher likelihood of information cascades in hierarchical networks.
In this paper we test some hypotheses about individual decision making under risk based on the unique Russian TV show «Sdelka?!» participants behavioral data. The show presents the game where participants are supposed to choose between guaranteed amount of money and lottery which may result in gains or losses. Participants are assumed to make decisions based on prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory including both subjective probability transformation and reference-dependent behavior. Herewith it is assumed that reference point is dynamic so it may change through the game. In order to estimate parameters associated with participants decision making mechanism we propose econometric binary choice model based on quasi maximum likelihood method. The results suggest that contestants adapt reference point depending on the game process. Adaptation seems to be asymmetric since reference point shifts noticeably to the right in response to gains and substantially less to the left if the game goes poorly. In addition, we have found weak evidence in favor of loss aversion effect. In order to demonstrate the robustness of the results we are using various approaches to subjective probabilities transformation. According to Akaike information criteria econometric models incorporating probability transformation are superior to objective probability mode
The influence of demographic processes on the inflation rate in Russian regions is reviewing. The hypothesis of heterogeneous influence of the population of different age groups on the inflation rate are testing. Such influence can be explained by the different behavior of age groups concerning consumption, inflation expectations, as well as other factors that determine the behavior of different age groups, the specifics of the country’s regions, and interregional interaction. The database includes the statistical indicators of 81 regions of Russia for the period from 2010 to 2018. As the dependent variable the author has taken the inflation rate. As the independent variables in this paper are using the growth rate of the working age population share, the population younger than working age share, and the population older than working age share. Control variables are the openness of the economy, the growth rate of the physical volume index of investment, and the regional fiscal balances. The global and local Moran, Geary, Getis and Ord indices were used to identify the spatial dependence of the inflation rate. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that we can observe a positive global autocorrelation of the inflation rate in Russian regions and there is a need to use spatial models. Estimation of the Durbin spatial model allowed us to confirm the hypothesis. The growth rate of the working-age population share is inflationary, the growth rate of the population older than working age is inflationary too, but less, and the growth rate of the population younger than working age – deflationary. The obtained conclusions can be used to forecast inflation in the regions of Russia.
The collective monograph "Strategizing the economic and investment development of Kuzbass" examines the strategic initiatives of the transformation of Kuzbass for the period up to 2035, related to the transformation of traditional and the formation of new industries, the development of financial markets and foreign economic relations, aimed at improving the quality of life of people in Kuzbass.
This paper builds a theory of deregulation and roll-out of on-road competition in the public transport sector. Focusing on the dimensions of competition, ownership and authorisation, we identify five distinct regulatory regimes: public monopoly, regulated monopoly, unregulated monopoly, outsourcing to private monopoly and competition in the market. Our generalised theoretical framework allows for the direct comparison in the social welfare terms of the monopolies' outcomes and the fragmented market structure after deregulation. We formulate a set of parameter restrictions that make competition in the market preferable to public monopoly and competition for the market in the form of outsourcing. We also show the theoretical possibility of a ‘revised’ regulatory cycle forming a sequential transition between these identified regulatory regimes. Our model predicts possible policy reversals and the bypassing of certain phases of the cycle, that can occur due to technological advances, changes in fiscal constraints and institutional capacity improvements
This article investigates the role of boards in founder-managed firms with concentrated ownership in emerging markets. The literature frequently suggests that in this type of companies, boards have little influence on the corporate decision making. The article conducts a case study of AFK Sistema—a large Russian founder-managed firm with concentrated ownership. We observe that, contrary to the expectations, in this company, the founder provided real authority to the board, at the same time focusing on recruiting independent (mainly foreign) members. Based on this case, we argue that selectively empowering boards in this type of ownership setting could be beneficial for the firm: Selective empowerment is a source of intrinsic motivationfor the independent board members, making them proactively search for new projects and assist in their implementation on behalf of the firm. As a result, the company can overcome a number of important barriers in its development.
This paper focuses on Soviet practices and debates on money during the 1918-1921 period. In the first part, we briefly present the Bolshevik policy and discussions on eliminating money as a means of payments and calculation. In the second part, we outline in details A. Chayanov's model of in-kind accounting by making some comparisons with O. Neurath's proposals for an economy in kind. The latter had a decisive influence on Soviet Russia. Finally, we conclude with some reflections on the role of these models for ecological economics, modern efficiency measuring and monetary theory.
Among the recent or revisited assumptions in the literature, the “dependent capitalism” hypothesis has met growing interest and relevance in the context of the 2008 economic and financial crisis. The purpose of the present article is first to expand the scope of the dependence analysis to the Balkan countries, both members and non-members of the EU, and second, to demonstrate that dependence also appears in these countries in a differentiated way through another institutional form, not included in the initial theoretical framework of Hall and Soskice, monetary regimes. A monetary regime can be considered as a structuring institutional form, expressing the power relations between national and foreign actors. In the dependent capitalism case, where foreign capital prevails and the trade balance dynamics is determined by the capital account, one could expect that monetary regimes would be implemented in a way to protect the capital and interests of foreign investors in the long term, hence to delegate monetary sovereignty to the investor’s country of origin. In the first part of the paper, some theoretical and methodological aspects of the dependent capitalism in post-socialist countries and of the specific monetary regime on which it is based, are discussed. Then, in the second part, the dependence analysis is illustrated by the case studies of monetary regimes in the Balkans during the period from 1990 to 2015. © 2020, © 2020 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
World War I marked the final point of the continuous process of fiduciarisation of money, of the detachment from its substance, the final point of establishing « Russian type of ideal money ». Paper currency was a Russian tradition, since 1769, until the introduction of the gold standard in 1897. The war brought back the dominance of the paper currency. In this paper, I will consecutively dwell on: (i) the role of paper currency and loans during the war and the discussions among the leading Russian economists as regards the evolution of the monetary regime. I will then examine, (ii) Tugan’s business cycle (conjunctural) theory of the value of money associated with aggregate demand, and especially with the development of the model of money demand and its endogeneity, and finally (iii) on Tugan’s proposals for managed paper currency by controlling the exchange rate.
This research advances the hypothesis and establishes empirically that interpersonal population diversity, rather than fractionalization or polarization across ethnic groups, has been pivotal to the emergence, prevalence, recurrence, and severity of intrasocietal conflicts. Exploiting an exogenous source of variations in population diversity across nations and ethnic groups, as determined predominantly during the exodus of humans from Africa tens of thousands of years ago, the study demonstrates that population diversity, and its impact on the degree of diversity within ethnic groups, has contributed significantly to the risk and intensity of historical and contemporary civil conflicts. The findings arguably reflect the contribution of population diversity to the non-cohesiveness of society, as reflected partly in the prevalence of mistrust, the divergence in preferences for public goods and redistributive policies, and the degree of
fractionalization and polarization across ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups.
The objective of this paper is to study the operating mechanisms of the issuing institutions in CFA area and the different sources of money creation. Our approach consists in studying, respectively the automatic or discretionary nature of monetary policies, through the establishment of nonneutralization/non-sterilization monetary indices (index); and in a second step we test, using co-integration models, the evolution of monetary base in relation of Net External Asset (NFA) and in relation to the evolution of Net Domestic Assets. Our results mainly indicate the existence of a preponderance of the external sector or NFA over the evolution of the monetary base or money supply, compared to the domestic sector. In addition, we observe an automatic adjustment in both WAEMU and CEMAC over the long term. But the return to equilibrium is slower in WAEMU due to a mix of automation and discretion. On the other hand, in CEMAC, the return to equilibrium is almost automatic with a strong dependence on the external sector.